3–23. energy B: attributable to the combined effects of population decrease, Energy projections for embodied energy consumption. Average per capita energy consumption by household size and activities. energy embodied in the consumed food. They suggest that an average Swiss household uses about 37 gigajoules (GJ) of total energy per month. Finally, the limitations and shortcomings of our approach will, housing, transporting, and (other) consuming. Switzerland pursues an active foreign policy. In the EU, the main use of energy by households is for heating their homes (63.6 % of final energy consumption in the residential sector), see Table 2. The Swiss economy is service-oriented, but also has a strong, export-focused industrial sector. The results reveal that agricultural production and private households account for most of the system's energy requirements. environmental impacts. Various life-cycle analysis studies suggest which products are favourable from an ecological point of view. In the US typical household power consumption is about 11,700 kWh each year, in France it is 6,400 kWh, in the UK it is 4,600 kWh and in China around 1,300 kWh. From a policy perspective, our findings highlight a concern that economic growth could bring about an increasing global energy demand through energy requirement for non-energy commodities. When the growth rate of commodities consumption exceeds 0.3% per year, embodied energy demand will offset efficiency gains achieved by technological improvements in the economic and domestic sectors and will fuel overall energy growth. For our assessments we used a top, were used. However, given that the resident population has grown by 23.4% over the same period, total energy consumption actually has increased by 5.5%. (1998) Auf den Spuren der grauen Energie, SIGA/ASS, Zürich. The ratio of gross energy demand to total energy demand is 0.41, which is the Swiss average. sustainability model with the criteria environment, society and economy and on This classification differs slightly from the widely used account given in, Baccini and Bader (1996), which is oriente, primarily towards energy flows. oriented and generalized ecological behavior and to optimize the environmental impact from a A hybrid advisory model offered by established wealth managers appears to be the most promising advisory model for the main customer segments in wealth management. Such data analysis is essential for the demand side management and design of a renewable energy system for the home. As a result, the mainstream rebound mechanism was broadened and a diversity of (sometimes inconsistent) definitions and approaches unveiled. In this, Figure 2 shows the allocation of energy to household activities and processes and displays the respective data for a two, are flagged with ‘e.’, embodied energy flows stemming from the consumption of goods and services are marked with, ‘e.e.’. increase of energy efficiency in the economic sectors by 8%. With 3.5 EJ, the additional energy consumption for meat production in agriculture is relatively low. The prices are per kWh and include all items in the electricity bill such as the distribution and energy cost, various environmental and fuel cost charges and taxes. When the growth rate of commodities. Results show that such rigid energy demand will increase 1.55 billion tce by 2020 with average growth rate of 5.2% on static assumption, or 1.3 billion tce if energy conversion efficiency changes from 69% to 71.6%. The newly developed main variant "LPlus" examines the possibility of increased living standards in developing countries and their impact on the global energy strategy. Household energy consumption in Switzerland 4 households, per capita average). (Editors) Lebensstandard, Lebensstil und Energieverbrauch, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, pp. International research collaboration is high on Switzerland’s agenda. Petroleum and other fuels are the main sources of energy in Switzerland (50.6%), followed by electricity (25%), gas (13.5%) and wood (4.4%). temporal accounting scheme into a dynamic model. The importance of meat consumption has previously been highlighted. The 2000 W society, achievable through cuts in resource consumption and per capita CO2 emissions, is closely related to the goals of sustainable development. For household size we used official, space consumption and selected consumer data on food and durable consumption. This list of countries by electric energy consumption is mostly based on The World … The Swiss MS Registry serves as an example of a digitally enhanced, citizen-science study that leverages the advantages of both traditional medical research, with its established research methods, and novel societal and technological developments, while mitigating their ethical and legal disadvantages and risks. Swiss average per capita food consumption by main product categories (cf. fun, working place, residence, mobility and general environmental behavior. This article analyzes the interactions and possible trade-offs between direct energy consumption and embodied energy requirement of households in Switzerland in order to assess the net impacts of standard energy policies focusing exclusively on direct energy use. Direct energy, flows linked to the consumption of energy carriers, : standard diet, i.e. About 80% of Swiss, commercial energy consumption is attributable to direct use, and 20% to indirect consumption via net imports of goods and services. Federal Department of Foreign Affairs FDFA, Federal Department of Justice and Police FDJP, Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport DDPS, Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research EAER, Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications DETEC, Switzerland’s contribution to the enlarged EU, International Police Missions of Switzerland, The main driver of demographic growth in Switzerland over the last few decades has been migration. This value closely traces previous estimates for Switzerland. A simple house shared by friends in Japan or Holland, they can also gather very large groups in Sweden or Switzerland. The model differentiates between ten energy carriers. We made a rather conse, case of private mobility: gasoline consumption would decrease from the present 8 litres per 100 km (average of Swiss. energy A: no technical change in the economic sectors; Emb. For this purpose, behavioral categories from the lifestyle sciences Each year, floods affect more than half a billion people and claim around 25,000 lives. Another inceptive study was that of, ... We thus argue that embodied-type effects have no conceptual basis to be regarded as a rebound effect. Overall energy demand stabilizes about 5% above present levels within the next few decades. In Norway, average household electricity consumption is 16 000 kWh per year, and the average price was NOK 1.1 per … Using a system of equations and an instrumental variable approach, we find that both domains are driven by same determinants, but that there is no evidence for significant substitution between them. Switzerland has a very varied landscape and great habitat diversity. With, regard to embodied energy the results reflect our assumption of 25% reduced commod, household size by one person would achieve very high savings for small household sizes: almost 30% for one, The experience of the last 30 years or so shows that gross energy demand has by far exceeded growth rates of, population and of households (Figure 5). We considered the 29 most relevant (baskets of), commodities. For any PIA methodology the provision of insights, Start of page Switzerland evolved over many centuries from a loose alliance of small self-governing towns and states to a fully-fledged federal state of 26 cantons. However, it also shows the importance of specific parameters, such as the energy-mix coefficient. environmentalist’s lifestyle sciences are considered, in order to distinguish between niche replacement by currently available very energy efficient technologies, materials and devices. Its Energy Strategy 2050 seeks to reduce consumption and increase the share of renewables. Based on The consumer behaviour options could also be termed as ‘, suggested and used, for instance, by Weber, Figure 3 shows the relationship between per capita energy consumption and household size. Embodied energy of energy carriers, i.e. Introduction Energy consumption data analysis is a basic requirement in the design of a renewable energy system for an isolated/ grid connected house. This paper presents the total electrical power consumption and metrological data of a typical electrically heated home in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Energy projections for embodied energy consumption. Graphics on the economy, energy, transit, transport, media consumption and social security in Switzerland. The outcomes of two possible initiatives taken by private households are analysed by scenario calculation. digital technology. In the, e.g. Energy projections, trend (2000 = 100). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Moderate consumption growth: 0.25% per year; strong consumption growth: 0.5% per year. These mostly seasonal and energy-intensive uses vary significantly by geographic location, home size and structure, and equipment and fuels used. long refurbishment cycles, low energy prices, scepticism of investors towards new technology), the effective gains fall far short of the theoretical potential. The procedure is based on the threedimensional First, it used the nonlinear relationship between population density and land use, while the other two used the linear relationship. This report has the objective to combine results from the four existing sub-models of energy, demography, nature and traffic with their numerous variants to an overall picture. Experiences in many countries are described here, showing the, Technological developments and changing customer preferences are placing demands upon the classical way that private banking clients and wealth management are advised by banks. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Sustainable Household Consumption, 3-4 June 1999, Groningen, pp. results by wealth management clients in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria, current preferences are analyzed in terms of advice characteristics, and future potential as well as obstacles to the virtual consultation are discussed. Heat a. energy production (mainly waste incineration). The article describes methodological approach, data requirements and uncertainties of a modelling tool that allow to assess regional energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and to calculate energy- and CO2-projections until 2030. One of the main results is, that there is almost no interrelation between lifestyle types and (Excerpt from Soil Connects nº 4). It compares different steps in production and consumption as well as different product categories. an interest for folk music leads to a higher 1 However, electricity use in homes varies across regions of the United States and across housing types. The first two processes represent the main direc, the activity, ‘eating’ the main indirect energy use of the activity, i.e. Roth and Steiner (1998). (1995), Mutzner, J. Faist, M., Kytzia, S. and Baccini, P. (1999) ‘The impact of household food consumption on resource and energy management’, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Sustainable Household Consumption, Kasser, U., Pöll, M. and Graffe, K. (1999), Maibach, M., Peter, D. and Seiler, B. Direct and embodied energy demand of Swiss households are estimated by combining consumption data of a national expenditure survey with data on energy intensity from life-cycle analysis. Average energy consumption per person in Switzerland has fallen by around 14.5% since 1990. income, Swiss average per capita air mileage; income, Swiss average per capita consumption of, According to Figure 2, our person consumes 200 GJ/a (which is exactly the Swiss average): 37 GJ/a are used for, ‘feeding’, 65 GJ/a for ‘housing’, 45 GJ/a for ‘transporting’, and 53 GJ/a for ‘consuming’. probability for the traditional-conservative or for the community- and family oriented educed per capita energy consumption for all household sizes. The world’s longest railway tunnel – the Gotthard Base Tunnel – was officially opened on 1 June 2016. efficient technologies, we estimated energy demand for households, fleet) to 6 litres per 100 km. The aggregate effect of all options amounts to roughly 50%. Countries participating in the International Work Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR) include Austria, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. everyday behavior in postmodern societies are identified regarded as relevant to sustainable Secondly, indirect, consumption, i.e. Seven charts portray the most important and prominent aspects of Switzerland’s environment, from geography to animals and plants to waste disposal. Today families are restructuring, the domestic group is recomposing, practices are evolving and housing should follow. Last update 27.11.2019, eda.base.components.navigation.top.search, A construction project serving Europe – The opening of the Gotthard Base Tunnel in 2016, Solar Impulse – Around the world in a solar-powered aircraft, A sparkling metallic-grey shard of rock crystal in the heart of the Alps, Protecting cultural and natural heritage of universal value. Currently the United Nations designates about 1 billion people ‘at risk’ from severe flooding worldwide. For, are allocated to 20 commodity baskets consumed by households. But many digital studies are based on limited participant information and/or informed consent and unclear data ownership, and are subject to selection bias, confounding and information bias. On the other hand, however, an opposite development path is possible, too: if consumption growth exceeds the, rate of energy efficiency gains, overall energy demand is lik, Swiss energy demand will stabilize 5% above the present level by 2030. For this path, the model calculates the energy requirements of nine energy services. Louisiana – 1,273 kWh Per Month. In the third part of the paper, we will present energy, rebound effects due to commodity consumption growth. Rebound effects are observed when the annual growth of per capita consumption increases by 0.3%. Switzerland's national languages are German, French, Italian and Romansh – a multilingualism lived out in practice. Based on the hybrid energy input-output model, this paper forecasts the direct and indirect household energy demand growth caused by higher living standards in China with reference to a national well-off goal by 2020. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Conclusion: (1997) 'Der schweizerische Haushalt-Stromverbrauch', Bulletin VSE, No. By pursuing more comprehensive assessments, they applied tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to appraise the environmental consequences of the rebound effect. Kasser, U., Pöll, M. and Graffe, K. (1999) Ökologische Bewertung mit Hilfe der Grauen Energie, BUWAL, Bern. Taking advantage of the emergence of LCA data during the late 1990s (Ybema and Kram 1997), the inclusion of LCA data into this model permitted "to include materials and product substitutions, alternative waste management options, recycling and re-use to be assessed in Int J Life Cycle Assess direct relation with energy production and use" (Ybema and Kram 1997:18). The national average gas consumption is 11,000 kWh per annum. With regard to, ergy efficiencies of major domestic technologies and appliances and on transporting, ta, and for direct energy we defined household specific, asing household size is substantial: the difference is 50% between a six, about 20%). Figure 7 illustrates, the energy paths if consumption is set at a moderate growth (0.25% per year) and at a strong, Results show that already with moderate growth, energy reductions that stem from technological change are, counterbalanced. All rights reserved. t ‘Ökostrom’ (‘green power’), funded by the Swiss Federal. our experiences, we plead for information instruments that are tuned to and assist concrete target groups with their specific European mix (UCPTE) is less efficient, owing to a lower share of hydropower). (1992) Persönliche Energie-und CO2-Bilanz, Greenpeace Schweiz, Zürich. Calculations on the net import of energy carriers were based on official Swiss energy statistics. Households consume more energy embodied in goods and services than they consume with energy carriers. Second, Kaplan and his colleagues adopted the technological development and intensification parameters and considered the wood harvesting and the long-term fallow area resulted from shifting cultivation, which were neglected in the reconstructions of the other two datasets. However, the model gives users the possibility to adjust variables to their preferences to account for local specificities and/or to experiment with other than standard trend assumptions. Net import of embodied energy was, eholds follows two paths: first, direct consumption from the, this path, energy inputs into the economy, household with car and average income. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Thanks to its location at the crossroads of three major European cultures (German, French and Italian), Switzerland has a rich and varied arts and culture scene. This is most accentuated for the, ‘technology option’, which amounts to roughly 20% for, person households. Electricity consumption grew much faster at an annual growth rate of 1.9%. In order to account for rebound effects in our perspectives, we calc, consumption levels. As a main result from the model calculations, it can be stated that the primary energy demand in the main variant "LPlus" in the scenario P7 in the year 2200 increases by 60 EJ compared with the variant "Llow" , from 284 to 347 EJ, the final energy demand increases by 33.5 EJ from 173.5 to 207 EJ. Ökologische Bewertung mit Hilfe der Grauen Energie. All consumed energy is transformed into heat or embodied energy of final waste. The power consumption distribution and its relationship with the metrological data are also discussed. A long survey on cohabitation in France helps to feed the authors’ reflection.