He concludes "What we do next in this continuum will depend on how thoroughly we have learned the lessons of the past, lessons that the authors of this volume have attempted to reveal". While Toynbee relies heavily on Moretti’s publication and its images, she has a number of specific objections to Moretti’s interpretation of the images on the altar and their meaning. . An in-depth description and review of 3 progressively and dramatically expanded Roman exhibitions: the 1911 Mostra Archeologica; 1938 Mostra Augustea; and projected 1942 Mostra della Romanità. "Fixed Meaning: Restoration in Ancient Rome”. Includes 4 gray-scale photos, including 1 of the 1938 Ara Pacis pavilion. http://www.ajaonline.org/sites/default/files/AJA1132_Strazzulla.pdf. Dibattiti rotariani, rivista monografica del Rotary Club Roma Sud. http://www.jstor.org/stable/300199, Thomson de Grummond, Nancy 94, No. Roma: Bonsignori Editore, 2005, pp.21-39. Estratto della Nuova Revista Storica, anno V, fasc. “Storia del restauro architettonico”. Available on the web through JStor at In his long critical-chronological essay (p.28), the art historian Philip Jodidio, briefly defends Meier’s design for the Ara Pacis against the most damaging review by Nicolai Ouroussoff in the 25 Sept. 2006 New York Times. These provide the most informative photographs of the interior of the pavilion with Ara Pacis from 1940 to 1970. “Lo scavo e la recostruzione dell’Ara Pacis Augustae”. Bologna: Editrice Compositori, 1973. An important account of the reliefs from the Ara Pacis and closely related reliefs installed in the exterior walls of the Villa Medici, Rome. “Pax Augusta and the Horae on the Ara Pacis Augustae” 13 - 9 között épült Augustus római császár Hispaniából és Galliából való hazatérése alkalmából. Petersen's 1902 publication consisted of a text volume with prints (pages 1-3 on this website) and an accompanying volume of photogravures (page 4 on this website). Studi e Materiali (Studi in onore di Achille Adriani) Because the physical history of the Ara Pacis is so closely allied with it’s location and display, a number of publications on the 1938 Fascist pavilion and the 2006 Meier and Associates museum are included. 2006. 119-122. de Angelis Bertolotti, Romano Mainz: Phulipp von Zabern, 1988; pp. Many judgments about the new museum are of course dependent on point of view and personal opinion. Zanker is widely recognized as one of the leading scholars of Augustan Rome, wonderfully describing the ways in which Augustus used images to create a pervasive myth of the Augustan golden age. 1-8. Stern writes: “The chief failure of Moretti’s 1948 folio is its omission of how Moretti made several crucial decisions in reassembling the monument. Vol. London: Oxford University Press, 1929. 81, No. Practice: Ara Pacis . Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità; Atti della R. Accademiadei Lincei. The quality of most of the illustrations is excellent, a few poor, and, not surprisingly, given the conditions at the time, most of the color is peculiar. Stanley, Alessandro Oxford University Press, 1955. 77-101. Kampen, Natalie Boymel Vol. In this rarely referenced article, Simon first called attention to the improperly narrow space between panels II and II of the north side processional frieze, as reconstructed in the hurried 1937-38 reconstruction. He concludes that we must go beyond the simple recognition and description of polychromy to a more complete reading of the meaning of color images in public art. dell’Inst). 43 x 31 cm. The museum space designed by architect Richard Meier modulates the contrast between light and shadow. He also bases his proposals on characteristics of the overall design as it emerged. Stern, Gaius. Classical Association of the Middle West and South (CAMWS), Cincinnati, Apr. Galleria a cura del Centro studi Architettura Cività e Tradizione del Classico. Juni-14. Quderni di Storia. 88, no.4 (1984), pp. 53 (1971), p. 111. “The Peace of the Ara Pacis”. 15 CE. This small paperback includes a brief but authoritative 14-page text by the distinguished archaeologist responsible for the 1937-38 excavation and reconstruction of the altar. He presents persuasive evidence that much the 2 processional friezes were reworked in antiquity, some extensively. Morpurgo, V. (Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo, 1890-1966) She writes that “the question is not whether Roman audiences grasped an obelisk’s Egyptian significance as a resident of late Period Egypt would have but, rather, whether the Egyptian content of the monument, as Romans understood it, was significant to them” (p.142). Detailed account of drawings from the collection of Cassiano del Pozzo and his family, now in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. pp. “The Processions of the Ara Pacis”. Rossini presents a clear, forceful statement of why the often proposed idea of moving the Ara Pacis to allow a more integrated urban area was rejected. He argues that these reliefs, though varying over time and for particular situations, follow a well-fixed logic. From the dialectic, Boito's own approach emerges as a synthesis of elements from both schools. No. English translation published as Roman Art by the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 2010. These were mostly taken by Italian photographers on commission from the British amateur-scholar John Henry Parker (1806-1884). Journal of Roman Studies. “Pietas Augusta, ARA”. Leipzig: Verlag von Veit & Comp., 1908. “Ara Pacis: Il cantiere delle polemiche opinione di Vittorio Sgarbi”. Vol. Hamburg: Lütcke & Wulff,1907. 10 of the author's informative drwings are reproduced on this web site. As such, it provides a major indication of the state of scholarship in 1953. Ryberg, Inez Scott Kempen notes the central role of Livia as wife and mother and her role in stabilizing and legitimizing the Augustan succession. Lazzaro, Claudia 1982, 16, pp. This site (http://www.reed.edu/ara-pacis/) was published by Charles Rhyne and Reed College, in Portland, Oregon, on April 15, 2011, and is used extensively by students, teachers, scholars, and the public worldwide.” Palmer, Samuel Ball may not be included. A thoughtful, early review of Meier’s building which concludes that the museum as container and supplier of services is a success but that its urban image is not. Art Bulletin (ArtB). “L'Ara Pacis Augustae”. Vol. Carte Gatti, 17, F. 24. Public monuments from Augustus to Septimius Severus". . In this much acclaimed book, the author provides a synthetic study of the ways in which art and architecture were “pressed into the service of political power” in the Age of Augustus and thus how they reflect that society. 1 (1999), pp. “Il Mausoleo di Augusto, studio di ricostruzione”. The Art of Rome, c. 753 B.C. Le Arti. In such a brief text, it is understandable that the author does not mention some of the differing opinions and recent changes in scholarship. Text pp. Tanner, Jeremy Strazzulla describes the creation of the new building, designed by Richard Meier and associates, begun in 1996, and the sometimes-violent architectural criticism and political conflicts that ensued. Published by the Rotary Club of South Rome, in cooperation with all the Rotary Clubs of Rome, which were leading supporters of the restoration of the Ara Pacis. Partly through parallels with passages in Virgil’s Georgics, she identifies the figure as the goddess Italia. It deals with a wide range of types of art but focuses on the western tradition rather than engaging cultural heritage worldwide. The Ara Pacis is one of the finest sculptural creations from the reign of Augustus, and its level of preservation is remarkable. This provides revealing context for understanding Mussolini’s decision to have the Ara Pacis excavated and reconstructed as part of his new Piazzale Augusto Imperatore. Vol. There are some 260 small, high quality black-white illustrations. The texts are nearly identical, with a few upgrades in this 2000 chapter. This is a wide-ranging study not only on the physical characteristics and effects of floods but also a chapter on “Roman Attitudes toward Floods”. He even proposes that “the enshrining walls of the Ara Pacis date to the Tiberian principate” (p. 80). Vol. Direttore responsable Alberto Pugliese. History of Restoration of Ancient Stone Sculptures "Mutatio morum: the idea of a cultural revolution”. Restit. Princeton University Press, 2007. These rules . Sperti, Luigi Capitolium. Capurso, Gianluca Haselberger, Lothar and John Humphrey, eds. He should respect the efforts of the present rather than thinking that the last valid moment of Roman architecture was EUR and the Città Universitaria, which by the way is in great need of restoration”. But scholars disagree about the extent to which this is true of the original south processional frieze with Augustus. 6 (1984), pp. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. Zanker writes (in translation): “Richard Meier has confined the Augustan altar in a room with an oppressive roof”. Several passages, quoted below, are thought to relate to the Ara Pacis Augustae. Leiden, Boston: Koninklijke Brill, 2004. He argues for the appropriateness of the Mausoleum as the home for the Ara Pacis "on which the major part of the personages buried in the cell below are figured". “The Ara Pacis Augustae” All of the illustrations in this article with captions are reproduced on this website. “Introduzione" to Giulia Bordignon, Ara Pacis Augustae. Il restauro dei monumenti. Between the extreme positions of Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc, Boito takes an intermediate path that was adopted by Giovannoni and by the Vienna School (Riegl, Dvorák) and later  codified at the International Congress of Athens (1931). Gobbi, Cecilia This bibliography focuses on the primary subjects of this web site, the physical history of the Ara Pacis Augustae; its creation, gradual disappearance, rediscovery, alteration and dispersal, excavation, reconstruction, restoration, present condition and display. Chapter 9, pp. Simon was the first to suggest that the head inserted at the upper-right of the Aeneas relief should be placed, instead, on the Roma relief. http://www.engramma.it/eOS/index.php?id_articolo=381, Spivey, Nigel Actes du colloque international Paris, 24 octobre 1997. In all of these, especially  in the last section, the extensive 1784  interventions of  Francesco Carradori are given special attention. Platner writes: “Systematic excavations in1903 under the palazzo . In this 1991 exhibition (Parker No. “There was an exquisite balance between stylizatuon and informality”;  “it appealed to a variety of people and sensibilities”. "Camillo Boito (1936-1914) was one of the founding figures of modern Italian conservation, yet his writings on conservation were never translated into English [until 2009, in the publication cited below, from  which this annotation is quoted] and he is little known outside his native country. Also, there are drawings to suggest how the processional friezes might have looked with spacing adjusted and missing figures added. http://www.arachne.uni-koeln.de/arapacis/index.html. Magistrates, priests and Vestals offered annual sacrifices. Engramma, no.83 (Sept. 2010). In the end, they had to build a brick wall around Ara Pacis to protect it from sand and mud. . Vol. The thesis is an impressive example of a thorough review of all previous scholarly opinions on a subject, with the author’s evaluations of each. A philosophical argument for the primary documentary value of the monument. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome (MemAmAc./ MAAR). Moreover, there is strange duplication and overlap. In this important 6-page article, Gatti proposes the enhancement of the Mausoleum of Augustus by converting it into a large Museo Augusteo. By 1970 it had become clear that the Ara Pacis was deteriorating because of the inadequate pavilion, which needed major restoration. ed. “If a marble surface were regularly overlaid with pigment – so that even a nude Venus would be covered in a ‘glaze’ of white lead – why do Greek and Roman poets like to apostrophize the purity of Parian marble as a likeness to the complexion of a desirable female” 306-334. "Considered the founder of the modern approach to restoration, Camillo Boito occupies an important place in any history of the subject. Vol. Foreword by Mosé Ricci. Vol. Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire. 68-83. She concludes that these 2 processional friezes present the non-Roman as “conquered, subordinate, impotent, childlike, and stripped of its supportive kin group, look[ing] to the Roman ruling elite for guidance and support, while the Roman elite may choose to ignore his or her pleas” (p. 155). Ara Pacis Augustae 2. pp. 1-24. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1978. 17 (2003), pp. Ghirardo, Diane 1, pp. The video is on the EffectiveClass web site, where it is described as “posted by alino on Mar 11th, 2010 in History”. Rome: Edizioni del Tritone, 1970. ed. Available on the web through JStor. Colini, A. M. and R. G. Giglioli 2, pp. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Tacitus, Cornelius “Short-lived Signs of International Peace on the Ara Pacis Augustae”. 19 (1949), pp. 9-16. 1-20. Instead, Swetnam-Burland argues that “though Romans had neither a comprehensive nor a precise understanding of the obelisk, the information available to them was surprisingly detailed. 2978), on loan from the “Visual Arts Collections, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University”, is a photograph of the well-preserved left slab of the Numa/Aeneas relief of the Ara Pacis. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The 35 photographs and 20 maps, ground plans, drawings and models, many previously unpubished, are invaluable in following the authors detailed account.  “Relazione della prima Campagna di Scavo nel Mausoleo d'Augusto”. Sonderschriften des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes in Wien. 61. Buonomo also discusses the use of the new museum for contemporary exhibitions and its public reception. Torsello, B. Paolo 66-72, 266). I have outlined the importance of this several times before, (78) but I do not have the impression that the appeal has been heeded by all scholars of Roman portraiture.  “The Portraits of Roman Emperors and the Families: Controversial positions and unresolved problems”. The author states that the obelisk erected by Augustus in the Campus Martius “is usually treated as part of a category rather than discussed as an individual monument” (no.23 on p.151), and that “with few exceptions, scholars gloss the monument’s Egyptian significance with but a generalized statement about obelisks’ role as Pharonic cult objects dedicated to the sun” (p.139). The frontispiece consists of 2 high quality, full-page photos of the left and right slabs of the Aeneas relief, and 4 small photographs of processional reliefs from plate 6 of Petersen. Elsner, Jas There are, in my opinion, too many publications that illustrate the monuments without the necessary level of comprehensiveness, or that only present the most-reproduced aspects. Rome, 1999. He illuminates the large compositional divisions of the reliefs, relation of figural to floral reliefs, and deliberate cross-referencing of parts. Bonner Jahrbücher des  Rheinischen Landsmuseums in Bonn und des Vereins von Altertumsfreunden im Rheinlande (BJb / BonJbb). Ara Pacis, also called Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin: “Altar of the Augustan Peace”), shrine consisting of a marble altar in a walled enclosure erected in Rome’s Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in honour of the emperor Augustus and dedicated on Jan. 30, 9 bce. ", Book II, February, lines 57-67 For the Ara Pacis there are 2 standard photographs and 2 pages of text, summarizing Zanker's now accepted view that the principal message of the Ara Pacis was that Augustan peace was dependent on Augustan military success. 61-72.. Toynbee continuously looks for precedents in previous Roman and Greek art, concluding that “the Ara Pacis brilliantly illustrates the adaption by Roman-age Greek architects and artists of classical Greek models to works conceived ad carried out in a thoroughly Roman spirit” (p.92). In addition he proposes that the Ara Pacis Augustae eventually be installed in the Mausoleum at the center of a large, well-lit central hall, 30 meters in diameter and 12 meters high, invisible from the outside. He describes their very high statues in society, clothing by which they could be idnetified, and the importance of strict protocol. There is a brief but insightful discussion of the related obelisk and Solarium Augusti. The publication of the German excavations by Edmund Buchner has revealed the full extent of the hugh and complex sundial that was laid out in the Campus Martius . Gustavo Giovannoni: riflessioni agli albori del XXI secolo: giornata di studio dedicata a Gaetano Miarelli Mariani (1928-2002). Latomus. He calls attention to the visual importance of the acanthus in the floral friezes and panels and superbly describes their powerful complex design. “The structure and function of the building exhibit the same qualities of dynamic tension between formal variety and unified conceptualizaton”. Milan: Electra, 1973. Ridley, Ronald T. Richard Meier & Partners: Complete Works 1963-2008. As such, her article is a model demonstration of the importance of reconstructing the physical history of works of art. Galinsky, Karl 2, pp. Hamburg, 1880. rebuild the monument". The extent to which careful, informed peer-review is essential to the ongoing reexamination of scholarship is demonstrated by this review of Niels Hannestad’s bold 1994 book, Tradition in Late Antique Sculpture: Conservation, Modernisation, Production. By 1878 Lanciani had been placed in charge of all excavations in Rome and had been appointed Professor of Roman Topography at the University of Rome. The altar is surrounded by walls. Strong describes the ways in which the nature of the exhibits evolved in keeping with the changing political aims of the Roman state. Andriani, Carmen Pubblicato a cura della Ripartizione del Comune di Roma. Rome: Quasar, 1999. Poissy Manuscript. 230-257. In the botanical alphabet, she identifies and describes 80 some plants represented on the Ara Pacis, identifies their location in the Roman Empire, their symbolic meaning, and distribution on the scrolling acanthus friezes. She presents a detailed reading of the interactions of people on the Ara Pacis friezes. 187 (1987), pp. The accompanying volume of photogravures includes the first published photographs of portions of the 2 processional friezes and of 2 figurative panels. Altogether, for anyone interested in the Ara Pacis or the physicial history of ancient marble sculpture, this publication is an education. American Journal of Archaeology (AJA). Excellent review of earlier scholarship on the Ara Pacis. Directed by M. Piacentini. Because written by a respected American architectural critic not involved in Roman politics, this is the most damaging review of the Meier’s building to have been published. 13-31, endnotes pp. Res Gesta Divi Augusti, ex Monumentis Ancyrano, Antiocheno, Apolloniensi. Available on the web through JStor. Bollettino d’arte del Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. . “Fonti letterarie antiche sull’ara augustae”. Vol. Podony, Jerry Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1909. "Relazione del Restauro fatto dà me Francesco Carradori scultore, è da farsi nei noli Bassirilievi già spediti per la volta di Livorno per condursi in Firenze". 3, nos. Kostof, Spiro On many of these pages there are 12 or more small color photographs comparing details of the Ara Pacis with photographs of flowers, berries, leaves, vines, foliage, bulbs, etc. Dibattiti rotariani, rivista monografica del Rotary club Roma Sud. 78-80 and plates 1-6 on pp. http://www.digitalsculpture.org/casts/felice/index.html. There are only 6 illustrations for the Ara Pacis (figs. Richard Meier: Il Museo dell’Ara Pacis. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3045761. Key to Kleiner’s article are her observations that:  “there is one significant difference that sets the Athenian and Roman friezes apart. “Un Tassello della tradizione moderna”. Vienna, pp. Bordignon, Giula Through a careful review of the history of each of these marble slabs, von Duhn concluded that not only those recently removed from under the Palazzo Fiano and the Via in Lucina, then on display in the courtyard of the Palazzo Fiano, but also some then in other collections, had come from an ancient Roman building where the Palazzo Fiano was then located. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2007. Gustavo Giovannoni: Riflessioni agli albori del XXI secolo Vol.1, pp. Brunt, P. A. and J. M. Moore, eds. La Rivista dei Libri. “Roman Renovation”. “Le Message esthétique des rinceaux de l’Ara Pacis Augustae”. In this richly contextual book, the author developes the multiplicity of meanings conveyed by the Ara Pacis to the full range of Roman viewers. A.S. Rip. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) 43 BCE - CE 17/18 London, 2001, pp. Listed and annotated under Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Eight images from this book, including this map and photographs and 4 other fold-out maps in color, are available on this website. The final 20 minutes of the lecture describe the Ara Pacis Augustae, primarily the architectural design, but also to some extent the sculpture. Strong, Eugénie Sellers http://www.digitalsculpture.org/casts/borbein/index.html. Vol. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. La storia, la letteratura e l’arte da Augusto a Nerone. On the web at Chapter 2 of the book’s 7 chapters is titled ”The Augustan Principate”, which includes a 13 page section on “The Ara Pacis Augustae”. 9 (1906), pp 298-315. As far as I can tell, there are only a few overall photographs of the monument or of the interior of the precinct wall or of the sacrifical altar. As usual, the author’s descriptions reveal essential concepts (trans. “Per un'Indagine sull'Archeologia Italiana durante il Ventennio Fascista". "Italy". She notes that lack of recognition of this incorrect join of an unidentified figure with Antonio minor has importance both for our understanding of the form of the monument and for our identification of the persons represented and their relationships to each other. Galinsky, Karl With the exception of Augustus' and Agrippa's heads, all portraits in the relief are generic" (p.121). By describing these as “restored to death”, Hannestad argues for much more extensive recarving of the original south processional frieze with Augstus than other scholars have claimed. These attributes of Roman art we see naturally in the historical section of the frieze, while the Greek component, with its virtuosity and its values of symbolism and the ideal form, reveals its influence more prominently in the allegorical section. Vol. All are of the highest professional quality. 240-245. “Roma, l’antico e il moderno”. 3-40. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003. Palermo: Libreria Nuova Presenza, 1974; pp. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/24/arts/design/24paci.html. . Schütz, Michael 1-4 CE. is annotated below under "Zanker, Paul. Both the altar proper and its enclosing structure were heavily ornamented with relief carving. She then describes 2 of Augustus major commissions in Rome, the Forum of Augustus (Forum Augustum) and the Ara Pacis Augustae. He is also unsympathetic to the extreme importance of archaeological study in Rome. 18-50. Oxford University Press, 2010 (1st ed. Seven of these maps are reproduced on this web site. L’Ara Pacis Augustae. “Il Cantiere e la costruzione”. mit zeichnungen von George Niewmann; VIII Lichtdrucktafeln in Besonderem Bande, 60 Abbildungen im Texte. Parker’s catalogue describes it as “fragment of sculpture on a Base, found in the Palazzo Fiano, and now in the courtyard of the same palace.”. 162-172, 178. A wide variety of information, videos, etc. Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 2006 Palladio. Includes a 54 page bibliography of references and a 12-page list of useful references for 24 subjects. de Grummond, Nancy Thomson Van Buren, A. W. (Albert William Van Buren, 1878-1968) by Manfred Heyde (CC BY-SA) Voted for by the Senate in 13 BCE the monument was completed within four years using Italian Luna marble and dedicated on 30th January 9 BCE. Ruesch, Vivian, and Bruno Zanardi Kubitschek, W. Steinby, E. M., ed. 21 important illustrations including 6 superb reproductions of early drawings. Most new buildings were made for their dual religious and governmental importance, such as the massive Temple of Apollo and the close to 100 other temples built under him. English translation available on this website. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. About 6 photos, also of good overall qualty, are from the Deutsche Archäologisches Institut in Rome. 56, Part 2. Nearly all articles on the subject are so biased and simplistic in their scorn or praise that they distort this fascinating, instructive, and understandably controversial process. Available on the web through JStor at Cooley, Alison “'Princes' and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis”. American Journal of Archaeology. Buchner also claimed that the obelisk was situated so that its shadow fell on the sarificial altar of the Ara Pacis at midday on. Kleiner, Diana E. E. "Corrado Ricci e il Restauro tra Testo, Immagine e Materia". JRA, Vol.7: 339-344. a cura della redazione di "Engramma", no. Torelli, Mario Images of this relief are on this website. The choice of materials has been expertly evaluated to integrate the architectural work with the surrounding environment and Ara Pacis. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of Color. is available on the museum website in Italian, English, Spanish, and French. 332-335, “Mausoleum Augusti”). Insciptions and 6 medium-size photographs on the Engramma website Pacis: la protezione del patrimonio dal sismico! Chapter, he proposes an approach to the Greek they approved the judicious use of all the resources at Harvard. Progretto Cultura the Supreme Council of Antiquities and fine Arts Gestae Augusti Morpurgo... Ihre Gestaltumwandlung unter Augustus/Rome 's Urban Metamorphosis under Augustus the following chapter, he provides a chronology of Heitage. 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